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zpool_vdev.c

/*
 * CDDL HEADER START
 *
 * The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the
 * Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").
 * You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 *
 * You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE
 * or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions
 * and limitations under the License.
 *
 * When distributing Covered Code, include this CDDL HEADER in each
 * file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.
 * If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the
 * fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying
 * information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
 *
 * CDDL HEADER END
 */

/*
 * Copyright 2008 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
 * Use is subject to license terms.
 */

/*
 * Functions to convert between a list of vdevs and an nvlist representing the
 * configuration.  Each entry in the list can be one of:
 *
 *    Device vdevs
 *          disk=(path=..., devid=...)
 *          file=(path=...)
 *
 *    Group vdevs
 *          raidz[1|2]=(...)
 *          mirror=(...)
 *
 *    Hot spares
 *
 * While the underlying implementation supports it, group vdevs cannot contain
 * other group vdevs.  All userland verification of devices is contained within
 * this file.  If successful, the nvlist returned can be passed directly to the
 * kernel; we've done as much verification as possible in userland.
 *
 * Hot spares are a special case, and passed down as an array of disk vdevs, at
 * the same level as the root of the vdev tree.
 *
 * The only function exported by this file is 'make_root_vdev'.  The
 * function performs several passes:
 *
 *    1. Construct the vdev specification.  Performs syntax validation and
 *         makes sure each device is valid.
 *    2. Check for devices in use.  Using libdiskmgt, makes sure that no
 *         devices are also in use.  Some can be overridden using the 'force'
 *         flag, others cannot.
 *    3. Check for replication errors if the 'force' flag is not specified.
 *         validates that the replication level is consistent across the
 *         entire pool.
 *    4. Call libzfs to label any whole disks with an EFI label.
 */

#include <assert.h>
#include <devid.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <libintl.h>
#include <libnvpair.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <paths.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/disk.h>
#include <sys/mntent.h>
#include <libgeom.h>

#include "zpool_util.h"

/*
 * For any given vdev specification, we can have multiple errors.  The
 * vdev_error() function keeps track of whether we have seen an error yet, and
 * prints out a header if its the first error we've seen.
 */
boolean_t error_seen;
boolean_t is_force;

/*PRINTFLIKE1*/
static void
vdev_error(const char *fmt, ...)
{
      va_list ap;

      if (!error_seen) {
            (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("invalid vdev specification\n"));
            if (!is_force)
                  (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("use '-f' to override "
                      "the following errors:\n"));
            else
                  (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("the following errors "
                      "must be manually repaired:\n"));
            error_seen = B_TRUE;
      }

      va_start(ap, fmt);
      (void) vfprintf(stderr, fmt, ap);
      va_end(ap);
}

/*
 * Check that a file is valid.  All we can do in this case is check that it's
 * not in use by another pool, and not in use by swap.
 */
static int
check_file(const char *file, boolean_t force, boolean_t isspare)
{
      char  *name;
      int fd;
      int ret = 0;
      int err;
      pool_state_t state;
      boolean_t inuse;

#if 0
      if (dm_inuse_swap(file, &err)) {
            if (err)
                  libdiskmgt_error(err);
            else
                  vdev_error(gettext("%s is currently used by swap. "
                      "Please see swap(1M).\n"), file);
            return (-1);
      }
#endif

      if ((fd = open(file, O_RDONLY)) < 0)
            return (0);

      if (zpool_in_use(g_zfs, fd, &state, &name, &inuse) == 0 && inuse) {
            const char *desc;

            switch (state) {
            case POOL_STATE_ACTIVE:
                  desc = gettext("active");
                  break;

            case POOL_STATE_EXPORTED:
                  desc = gettext("exported");
                  break;

            case POOL_STATE_POTENTIALLY_ACTIVE:
                  desc = gettext("potentially active");
                  break;

            default:
                  desc = gettext("unknown");
                  break;
            }

            /*
             * Allow hot spares to be shared between pools.
             */
            if (state == POOL_STATE_SPARE && isspare)
                  return (0);

            if (state == POOL_STATE_ACTIVE ||
                state == POOL_STATE_SPARE || !force) {
                  switch (state) {
                  case POOL_STATE_SPARE:
                        vdev_error(gettext("%s is reserved as a hot "
                            "spare for pool %s\n"), file, name);
                        break;
                  default:
                        vdev_error(gettext("%s is part of %s pool "
                            "'%s'\n"), file, desc, name);
                        break;
                  }
                  ret = -1;
            }

            free(name);
      }

      (void) close(fd);
      return (ret);
}

static int
check_provider(const char *name, boolean_t force, boolean_t isspare)
{
      char path[MAXPATHLEN];

      if (strncmp(name, _PATH_DEV, sizeof(_PATH_DEV) - 1) != 0)
            snprintf(path, sizeof(path), "%s%s", _PATH_DEV, name);
      else
            strlcpy(path, name, sizeof(path));

      return (check_file(path, force, isspare));
}

/*
 * By "whole disk" we mean an entire physical disk (something we can
 * label, toggle the write cache on, etc.) as opposed to the full
 * capacity of a pseudo-device such as lofi or did.  We act as if we
 * are labeling the disk, which should be a pretty good test of whether
 * it's a viable device or not.  Returns B_TRUE if it is and B_FALSE if
 * it isn't.
 */
static boolean_t
is_whole_disk(const char *name)
{
      int fd;

      fd = g_open(name, 0);
      if (fd >= 0) {
            g_close(fd);
            return (B_TRUE);
      }
      return (B_FALSE);
}

/*
 * Create a leaf vdev.  Determine if this is a GEOM provider.
 * Valid forms for a leaf vdev are:
 *
 *    /dev/xxx    Complete path to a GEOM provider
 *    xxx         Shorthand for /dev/xxx
 */
static nvlist_t *
make_leaf_vdev(const char *arg, uint64_t is_log)
{
      char path[MAXPATHLEN];
      struct stat64 statbuf;
      nvlist_t *vdev = NULL;
      char *type = NULL;
      boolean_t wholedisk = B_FALSE;

      /*
       * Determine what type of vdev this is, and put the full path into
       * 'path'.  We detect whether this is a device of file afterwards by
       * checking the st_mode of the file.
       */
      if (arg[0] == '/') {
            /*
             * Complete device or file path.  Exact type is determined by
             * examining the file descriptor afterwards.
             */
            wholedisk = is_whole_disk(arg);
            if (!wholedisk && (stat64(arg, &statbuf) != 0)) {
                  (void) fprintf(stderr,
                      gettext("cannot open '%s': %s\n"),
                      arg, strerror(errno));
                  return (NULL);
            }

            (void) strlcpy(path, arg, sizeof (path));
      } else {
            /*
             * This may be a short path for a device, or it could be total
             * gibberish.  Check to see if it's a known device in
             * /dev/dsk/.  As part of this check, see if we've been given a
             * an entire disk (minus the slice number).
             */
            if (strncmp(arg, _PATH_DEV, sizeof(_PATH_DEV) - 1) == 0)
                  strlcpy(path, arg, sizeof (path));
            else
                  snprintf(path, sizeof (path), "%s%s", _PATH_DEV, arg);
            wholedisk = is_whole_disk(path);
            if (!wholedisk && (stat64(path, &statbuf) != 0)) {
                  /*
                   * If we got ENOENT, then the user gave us
                   * gibberish, so try to direct them with a
                   * reasonable error message.  Otherwise,
                   * regurgitate strerror() since it's the best we
                   * can do.
                   */
                  if (errno == ENOENT) {
                        (void) fprintf(stderr,
                            gettext("cannot open '%s': no such "
                            "GEOM provider\n"), arg);
                        (void) fprintf(stderr,
                            gettext("must be a full path or "
                            "shorthand device name\n"));
                        return (NULL);
                  } else {
                        (void) fprintf(stderr,
                            gettext("cannot open '%s': %s\n"),
                            path, strerror(errno));
                        return (NULL);
                  }
            }
      }

      /*
       * Determine whether this is a device or a file.
       */
      if (wholedisk) {
            type = VDEV_TYPE_DISK;
      } else if (S_ISREG(statbuf.st_mode)) {
            type = VDEV_TYPE_FILE;
      } else {
            (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("cannot use '%s': must be a "
                "GEOM provider or regular file\n"), path);
            return (NULL);
      }

      /*
       * Finally, we have the complete device or file, and we know that it is
       * acceptable to use.  Construct the nvlist to describe this vdev.  All
       * vdevs have a 'path' element, and devices also have a 'devid' element.
       */
      verify(nvlist_alloc(&vdev, NV_UNIQUE_NAME, 0) == 0);
      verify(nvlist_add_string(vdev, ZPOOL_CONFIG_PATH, path) == 0);
      verify(nvlist_add_string(vdev, ZPOOL_CONFIG_TYPE, type) == 0);
      verify(nvlist_add_uint64(vdev, ZPOOL_CONFIG_IS_LOG, is_log) == 0);
      if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_DISK) == 0)
            verify(nvlist_add_uint64(vdev, ZPOOL_CONFIG_WHOLE_DISK,
                (uint64_t)B_FALSE) == 0);

      /*
       * For a whole disk, defer getting its devid until after labeling it.
       */
      if (1 || (S_ISBLK(statbuf.st_mode) && !wholedisk)) {
            /*
             * Get the devid for the device.
             */
            int fd;
            ddi_devid_t devid;
            char *minor = NULL, *devid_str = NULL;

            if ((fd = open(path, O_RDONLY)) < 0) {
                  (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("cannot open '%s': "
                      "%s\n"), path, strerror(errno));
                  nvlist_free(vdev);
                  return (NULL);
            }

            if (devid_get(fd, &devid) == 0) {
                  if (devid_get_minor_name(fd, &minor) == 0 &&
                      (devid_str = devid_str_encode(devid, minor)) !=
                      NULL) {
                        verify(nvlist_add_string(vdev,
                            ZPOOL_CONFIG_DEVID, devid_str) == 0);
                  }
                  if (devid_str != NULL)
                        devid_str_free(devid_str);
                  if (minor != NULL)
                        devid_str_free(minor);
                  devid_free(devid);
            }

            (void) close(fd);
      }

      return (vdev);
}

/*
 * Go through and verify the replication level of the pool is consistent.
 * Performs the following checks:
 *
 *    For the new spec, verifies that devices in mirrors and raidz are the
 *    same size.
 *
 *    If the current configuration already has inconsistent replication
 *    levels, ignore any other potential problems in the new spec.
 *
 *    Otherwise, make sure that the current spec (if there is one) and the new
 *    spec have consistent replication levels.
 */
typedef struct replication_level {
      char *zprl_type;
      uint64_t zprl_children;
      uint64_t zprl_parity;
} replication_level_t;

#define     ZPOOL_FUZZ  (16 * 1024 * 1024)

/*
 * Given a list of toplevel vdevs, return the current replication level.  If
 * the config is inconsistent, then NULL is returned.  If 'fatal' is set, then
 * an error message will be displayed for each self-inconsistent vdev.
 */
static replication_level_t *
get_replication(nvlist_t *nvroot, boolean_t fatal)
{
      nvlist_t **top;
      uint_t t, toplevels;
      nvlist_t **child;
      uint_t c, children;
      nvlist_t *nv;
      char *type;
      replication_level_t lastrep, rep, *ret;
      boolean_t dontreport;

      ret = safe_malloc(sizeof (replication_level_t));

      verify(nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(nvroot, ZPOOL_CONFIG_CHILDREN,
          &top, &toplevels) == 0);

      lastrep.zprl_type = NULL;
      for (t = 0; t < toplevels; t++) {
            uint64_t is_log = B_FALSE;

            nv = top[t];

            /*
             * For separate logs we ignore the top level vdev replication
             * constraints.
             */
            (void) nvlist_lookup_uint64(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_IS_LOG, &is_log);
            if (is_log)
                  continue;

            verify(nvlist_lookup_string(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_TYPE,
                &type) == 0);
            if (nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_CHILDREN,
                &child, &children) != 0) {
                  /*
                   * This is a 'file' or 'disk' vdev.
                   */
                  rep.zprl_type = type;
                  rep.zprl_children = 1;
                  rep.zprl_parity = 0;
            } else {
                  uint64_t vdev_size;

                  /*
                   * This is a mirror or RAID-Z vdev.  Go through and make
                   * sure the contents are all the same (files vs. disks),
                   * keeping track of the number of elements in the
                   * process.
                   *
                   * We also check that the size of each vdev (if it can
                   * be determined) is the same.
                   */
                  rep.zprl_type = type;
                  rep.zprl_children = 0;

                  if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_RAIDZ) == 0) {
                        verify(nvlist_lookup_uint64(nv,
                            ZPOOL_CONFIG_NPARITY,
                            &rep.zprl_parity) == 0);
                        assert(rep.zprl_parity != 0);
                  } else {
                        rep.zprl_parity = 0;
                  }

                  /*
                   * The 'dontreport' variable indicates that we've
                   * already reported an error for this spec, so don't
                   * bother doing it again.
                   */
                  type = NULL;
                  dontreport = 0;
                  vdev_size = -1ULL;
                  for (c = 0; c < children; c++) {
                        nvlist_t *cnv = child[c];
                        char *path;
                        struct stat64 statbuf;
                        uint64_t size = -1ULL;
                        char *childtype;
                        int fd, err;

                        rep.zprl_children++;

                        verify(nvlist_lookup_string(cnv,
                            ZPOOL_CONFIG_TYPE, &childtype) == 0);

                        /*
                         * If this is a replacing or spare vdev, then
                         * get the real first child of the vdev.
                         */
                        if (strcmp(childtype,
                            VDEV_TYPE_REPLACING) == 0 ||
                            strcmp(childtype, VDEV_TYPE_SPARE) == 0) {
                              nvlist_t **rchild;
                              uint_t rchildren;

                              verify(nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(cnv,
                                  ZPOOL_CONFIG_CHILDREN, &rchild,
                                  &rchildren) == 0);
                              assert(rchildren == 2);
                              cnv = rchild[0];

                              verify(nvlist_lookup_string(cnv,
                                  ZPOOL_CONFIG_TYPE,
                                  &childtype) == 0);
                        }

                        verify(nvlist_lookup_string(cnv,
                            ZPOOL_CONFIG_PATH, &path) == 0);

                        /*
                         * If we have a raidz/mirror that combines disks
                         * with files, report it as an error.
                         */
                        if (!dontreport && type != NULL &&
                            strcmp(type, childtype) != 0) {
                              if (ret != NULL)
                                    free(ret);
                              ret = NULL;
                              if (fatal)
                                    vdev_error(gettext(
                                        "mismatched replication "
                                        "level: %s contains both "
                                        "files and devices\n"),
                                        rep.zprl_type);
                              else
                                    return (NULL);
                              dontreport = B_TRUE;
                        }

                        /*
                         * According to stat(2), the value of 'st_size'
                         * is undefined for block devices and character
                         * devices.  But there is no effective way to
                         * determine the real size in userland.
                         *
                         * Instead, we'll take advantage of an
                         * implementation detail of spec_size().  If the
                         * device is currently open, then we (should)
                         * return a valid size.
                         *
                         * If we still don't get a valid size (indicated
                         * by a size of 0 or MAXOFFSET_T), then ignore
                         * this device altogether.
                         */
                        if ((fd = open(path, O_RDONLY)) >= 0) {
                              err = fstat64(fd, &statbuf);
                              if (err == 0 &&
                                  S_ISCHR(statbuf.st_mode)) {
                                    err = ioctl(fd, DIOCGMEDIASIZE,
                                        &statbuf.st_size);
                              }
                              (void) close(fd);
                        } else {
                              err = stat64(path, &statbuf);
                        }
                        if (err != 0 || statbuf.st_size == 0)
                              continue;

                        size = statbuf.st_size;

                        /*
                         * Also make sure that devices and
                         * slices have a consistent size.  If
                         * they differ by a significant amount
                         * (~16MB) then report an error.
                         */
                        if (!dontreport &&
                            (vdev_size != -1ULL &&
                            (labs(size - vdev_size) >
                            ZPOOL_FUZZ))) {
                              if (ret != NULL)
                                    free(ret);
                              ret = NULL;
                              if (fatal)
                                    vdev_error(gettext(
                                        "%s contains devices of "
                                        "different sizes\n"),
                                        rep.zprl_type);
                              else
                                    return (NULL);
                              dontreport = B_TRUE;
                        }

                        type = childtype;
                        vdev_size = size;
                  }
            }

            /*
             * At this point, we have the replication of the last toplevel
             * vdev in 'rep'.  Compare it to 'lastrep' to see if its
             * different.
             */
            if (lastrep.zprl_type != NULL) {
                  if (strcmp(lastrep.zprl_type, rep.zprl_type) != 0) {
                        if (ret != NULL)
                              free(ret);
                        ret = NULL;
                        if (fatal)
                              vdev_error(gettext(
                                  "mismatched replication level: "
                                  "both %s and %s vdevs are "
                                  "present\n"),
                                  lastrep.zprl_type, rep.zprl_type);
                        else
                              return (NULL);
                  } else if (lastrep.zprl_parity != rep.zprl_parity) {
                        if (ret)
                              free(ret);
                        ret = NULL;
                        if (fatal)
                              vdev_error(gettext(
                                  "mismatched replication level: "
                                  "both %llu and %llu device parity "
                                  "%s vdevs are present\n"),
                                  lastrep.zprl_parity,
                                  rep.zprl_parity,
                                  rep.zprl_type);
                        else
                              return (NULL);
                  } else if (lastrep.zprl_children != rep.zprl_children) {
                        if (ret)
                              free(ret);
                        ret = NULL;
                        if (fatal)
                              vdev_error(gettext(
                                  "mismatched replication level: "
                                  "both %llu-way and %llu-way %s "
                                  "vdevs are present\n"),
                                  lastrep.zprl_children,
                                  rep.zprl_children,
                                  rep.zprl_type);
                        else
                              return (NULL);
                  }
            }
            lastrep = rep;
      }

      if (ret != NULL)
            *ret = rep;

      return (ret);
}

/*
 * Check the replication level of the vdev spec against the current pool.  Calls
 * get_replication() to make sure the new spec is self-consistent.  If the pool
 * has a consistent replication level, then we ignore any errors.  Otherwise,
 * report any difference between the two.
 */
static int
check_replication(nvlist_t *config, nvlist_t *newroot)
{
      nvlist_t **child;
      uint_t      children;
      replication_level_t *current = NULL, *new;
      int ret;

      /*
       * If we have a current pool configuration, check to see if it's
       * self-consistent.  If not, simply return success.
       */
      if (config != NULL) {
            nvlist_t *nvroot;

            verify(nvlist_lookup_nvlist(config, ZPOOL_CONFIG_VDEV_TREE,
                &nvroot) == 0);
            if ((current = get_replication(nvroot, B_FALSE)) == NULL)
                  return (0);
      }
      /*
       * for spares there may be no children, and therefore no
       * replication level to check
       */
      if ((nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(newroot, ZPOOL_CONFIG_CHILDREN,
          &child, &children) != 0) || (children == 0)) {
            free(current);
            return (0);
      }

      /*
       * If all we have is logs then there's no replication level to check.
       */
      if (num_logs(newroot) == children) {
            free(current);
            return (0);
      }

      /*
       * Get the replication level of the new vdev spec, reporting any
       * inconsistencies found.
       */
      if ((new = get_replication(newroot, B_TRUE)) == NULL) {
            free(current);
            return (-1);
      }

      /*
       * Check to see if the new vdev spec matches the replication level of
       * the current pool.
       */
      ret = 0;
      if (current != NULL) {
            if (strcmp(current->zprl_type, new->zprl_type) != 0) {
                  vdev_error(gettext(
                      "mismatched replication level: pool uses %s "
                      "and new vdev is %s\n"),
                      current->zprl_type, new->zprl_type);
                  ret = -1;
            } else if (current->zprl_parity != new->zprl_parity) {
                  vdev_error(gettext(
                      "mismatched replication level: pool uses %llu "
                      "device parity and new vdev uses %llu\n"),
                      current->zprl_parity, new->zprl_parity);
                  ret = -1;
            } else if (current->zprl_children != new->zprl_children) {
                  vdev_error(gettext(
                      "mismatched replication level: pool uses %llu-way "
                      "%s and new vdev uses %llu-way %s\n"),
                      current->zprl_children, current->zprl_type,
                      new->zprl_children, new->zprl_type);
                  ret = -1;
            }
      }

      free(new);
      if (current != NULL)
            free(current);

      return (ret);
}

/*
 * Determine if the given path is a hot spare within the given configuration.
 */
static boolean_t
is_spare(nvlist_t *config, const char *path)
{
      int fd;
      pool_state_t state;
      char *name = NULL;
      nvlist_t *label;
      uint64_t guid, spareguid;
      nvlist_t *nvroot;
      nvlist_t **spares;
      uint_t i, nspares;
      boolean_t inuse;

      if ((fd = open(path, O_RDONLY)) < 0)
            return (B_FALSE);

      if (zpool_in_use(g_zfs, fd, &state, &name, &inuse) != 0 ||
          !inuse ||
          state != POOL_STATE_SPARE ||
          zpool_read_label(fd, &label) != 0) {
            free(name);
            (void) close(fd);
            return (B_FALSE);
      }
      free(name);

      (void) close(fd);
      verify(nvlist_lookup_uint64(label, ZPOOL_CONFIG_GUID, &guid) == 0);
      nvlist_free(label);

      verify(nvlist_lookup_nvlist(config, ZPOOL_CONFIG_VDEV_TREE,
          &nvroot) == 0);
      if (nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(nvroot, ZPOOL_CONFIG_SPARES,
          &spares, &nspares) == 0) {
            for (i = 0; i < nspares; i++) {
                  verify(nvlist_lookup_uint64(spares[i],
                      ZPOOL_CONFIG_GUID, &spareguid) == 0);
                  if (spareguid == guid)
                        return (B_TRUE);
            }
      }

      return (B_FALSE);
}

/*
 * Go through and find any devices that are in use.  We rely on libdiskmgt for
 * the majority of this task.
 */
static int
check_in_use(nvlist_t *config, nvlist_t *nv, int force, int isreplacing,
    int isspare)
{
      nvlist_t **child;
      uint_t c, children;
      char *type, *path;
      int ret;
      char buf[MAXPATHLEN];
      uint64_t wholedisk;

      verify(nvlist_lookup_string(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_TYPE, &type) == 0);

      if (nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_CHILDREN,
          &child, &children) != 0) {

            verify(nvlist_lookup_string(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_PATH, &path) == 0);

            /*
             * As a generic check, we look to see if this is a replace of a
             * hot spare within the same pool.  If so, we allow it
             * regardless of what libdiskmgt or zpool_in_use() says.
             */
            if (isreplacing) {
                  (void) strlcpy(buf, path, sizeof (buf));
                  if (is_spare(config, buf))
                        return (0);
            }

            if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_DISK) == 0)
                  ret = check_provider(path, force, isspare);

            if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_FILE) == 0)
                  ret = check_file(path, force, isspare);

            return (ret);
      }

      for (c = 0; c < children; c++)
            if ((ret = check_in_use(config, child[c], force,
                isreplacing, B_FALSE)) != 0)
                  return (ret);

      if (nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_SPARES,
          &child, &children) == 0)
            for (c = 0; c < children; c++)
                  if ((ret = check_in_use(config, child[c], force,
                      isreplacing, B_TRUE)) != 0)
                        return (ret);

      if (nvlist_lookup_nvlist_array(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_L2CACHE,
          &child, &children) == 0)
            for (c = 0; c < children; c++)
                  if ((ret = check_in_use(config, child[c], force,
                      isreplacing, B_FALSE)) != 0)
                        return (ret);

      return (0);
}

static const char *
is_grouping(const char *type, int *mindev)
{
      if (strcmp(type, "raidz") == 0 || strcmp(type, "raidz1") == 0) {
            if (mindev != NULL)
                  *mindev = 2;
            return (VDEV_TYPE_RAIDZ);
      }

      if (strcmp(type, "raidz2") == 0) {
            if (mindev != NULL)
                  *mindev = 3;
            return (VDEV_TYPE_RAIDZ);
      }

      if (strcmp(type, "mirror") == 0) {
            if (mindev != NULL)
                  *mindev = 2;
            return (VDEV_TYPE_MIRROR);
      }

      if (strcmp(type, "spare") == 0) {
            if (mindev != NULL)
                  *mindev = 1;
            return (VDEV_TYPE_SPARE);
      }

      if (strcmp(type, "log") == 0) {
            if (mindev != NULL)
                  *mindev = 1;
            return (VDEV_TYPE_LOG);
      }

      if (strcmp(type, "cache") == 0) {
            if (mindev != NULL)
                  *mindev = 1;
            return (VDEV_TYPE_L2CACHE);
      }

      return (NULL);
}

/*
 * Construct a syntactically valid vdev specification,
 * and ensure that all devices and files exist and can be opened.
 * Note: we don't bother freeing anything in the error paths
 * because the program is just going to exit anyway.
 */
nvlist_t *
construct_spec(int argc, char **argv)
{
      nvlist_t *nvroot, *nv, **top, **spares, **l2cache;
      int t, toplevels, mindev, nspares, nlogs, nl2cache;
      const char *type;
      uint64_t is_log;
      boolean_t seen_logs;

      top = NULL;
      toplevels = 0;
      spares = NULL;
      l2cache = NULL;
      nspares = 0;
      nlogs = 0;
      nl2cache = 0;
      is_log = B_FALSE;
      seen_logs = B_FALSE;

      while (argc > 0) {
            nv = NULL;

            /*
             * If it's a mirror or raidz, the subsequent arguments are
             * its leaves -- until we encounter the next mirror or raidz.
             */
            if ((type = is_grouping(argv[0], &mindev)) != NULL) {
                  nvlist_t **child = NULL;
                  int c, children = 0;

                  if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_SPARE) == 0) {
                        if (spares != NULL) {
                              (void) fprintf(stderr,
                                  gettext("invalid vdev "
                                  "specification: 'spare' can be "
                                  "specified only once\n"));
                              return (NULL);
                        }
                        is_log = B_FALSE;
                  }

                  if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_LOG) == 0) {
                        if (seen_logs) {
                              (void) fprintf(stderr,
                                  gettext("invalid vdev "
                                  "specification: 'log' can be "
                                  "specified only once\n"));
                              return (NULL);
                        }
                        seen_logs = B_TRUE;
                        is_log = B_TRUE;
                        argc--;
                        argv++;
                        /*
                         * A log is not a real grouping device.
                         * We just set is_log and continue.
                         */
                        continue;
                  }

                  if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_L2CACHE) == 0) {
                        if (l2cache != NULL) {
                              (void) fprintf(stderr,
                                  gettext("invalid vdev "
                                  "specification: 'cache' can be "
                                  "specified only once\n"));
                              return (NULL);
                        }
                        is_log = B_FALSE;
                  }

                  if (is_log) {
                        if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_MIRROR) != 0) {
                              (void) fprintf(stderr,
                                  gettext("invalid vdev "
                                  "specification: unsupported 'log' "
                                  "device: %s\n"), type);
                              return (NULL);
                        }
                        nlogs++;
                  }

                  for (c = 1; c < argc; c++) {
                        if (is_grouping(argv[c], NULL) != NULL)
                              break;
                        children++;
                        child = realloc(child,
                            children * sizeof (nvlist_t *));
                        if (child == NULL)
                              zpool_no_memory();
                        if ((nv = make_leaf_vdev(argv[c], B_FALSE))
                            == NULL)
                              return (NULL);
                        child[children - 1] = nv;
                  }

                  if (children < mindev) {
                        (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("invalid vdev "
                            "specification: %s requires at least %d "
                            "devices\n"), argv[0], mindev);
                        return (NULL);
                  }

                  argc -= c;
                  argv += c;

                  if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_SPARE) == 0) {
                        spares = child;
                        nspares = children;
                        continue;
                  } else if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_L2CACHE) == 0) {
                        l2cache = child;
                        nl2cache = children;
                        continue;
                  } else {
                        verify(nvlist_alloc(&nv, NV_UNIQUE_NAME,
                            0) == 0);
                        verify(nvlist_add_string(nv, ZPOOL_CONFIG_TYPE,
                            type) == 0);
                        verify(nvlist_add_uint64(nv,
                            ZPOOL_CONFIG_IS_LOG, is_log) == 0);
                        if (strcmp(type, VDEV_TYPE_RAIDZ) == 0) {
                              verify(nvlist_add_uint64(nv,
                                  ZPOOL_CONFIG_NPARITY,
                                  mindev - 1) == 0);
                        }
                        verify(nvlist_add_nvlist_array(nv,
                            ZPOOL_CONFIG_CHILDREN, child,
                            children) == 0);

                        for (c = 0; c < children; c++)
                              nvlist_free(child[c]);
                        free(child);
                  }
            } else {
                  /*
                   * We have a device.  Pass off to make_leaf_vdev() to
                   * construct the appropriate nvlist describing the vdev.
                   */
                  if ((nv = make_leaf_vdev(argv[0], is_log)) == NULL)
                        return (NULL);
                  if (is_log)
                        nlogs++;
                  argc--;
                  argv++;
            }

            toplevels++;
            top = realloc(top, toplevels * sizeof (nvlist_t *));
            if (top == NULL)
                  zpool_no_memory();
            top[toplevels - 1] = nv;
      }

      if (toplevels == 0 && nspares == 0 && nl2cache == 0) {
            (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("invalid vdev "
                "specification: at least one toplevel vdev must be "
                "specified\n"));
            return (NULL);
      }

      if (seen_logs && nlogs == 0) {
            (void) fprintf(stderr, gettext("invalid vdev specification: "
                "log requires at least 1 device\n"));
            return (NULL);
      }

      /*
       * Finally, create nvroot and add all top-level vdevs to it.
       */
      verify(nvlist_alloc(&nvroot, NV_UNIQUE_NAME, 0) == 0);
      verify(nvlist_add_string(nvroot, ZPOOL_CONFIG_TYPE,
          VDEV_TYPE_ROOT) == 0);
      verify(nvlist_add_nvlist_array(nvroot, ZPOOL_CONFIG_CHILDREN,
          top, toplevels) == 0);
      if (nspares != 0)
            verify(nvlist_add_nvlist_array(nvroot, ZPOOL_CONFIG_SPARES,
                spares, nspares) == 0);
      if (nl2cache != 0)
            verify(nvlist_add_nvlist_array(nvroot, ZPOOL_CONFIG_L2CACHE,
                l2cache, nl2cache) == 0);

      for (t = 0; t < toplevels; t++)
            nvlist_free(top[t]);
      for (t = 0; t < nspares; t++)
            nvlist_free(spares[t]);
      for (t = 0; t < nl2cache; t++)
            nvlist_free(l2cache[t]);
      if (spares)
            free(spares);
      if (l2cache)
            free(l2cache);
      free(top);

      return (nvroot);
}


/*
 * Get and validate the contents of the given vdev specification.  This ensures
 * that the nvlist returned is well-formed, that all the devices exist, and that
 * they are not currently in use by any other known consumer.  The 'poolconfig'
 * parameter is the current configuration of the pool when adding devices
 * existing pool, and is used to perform additional checks, such as changing the
 * replication level of the pool.  It can be 'NULL' to indicate that this is a
 * new pool.  The 'force' flag controls whether devices should be forcefully
 * added, even if they appear in use.
 */
nvlist_t *
make_root_vdev(zpool_handle_t *zhp, int force, int check_rep,
    boolean_t isreplacing, boolean_t dryrun, int argc, char **argv)
{
      nvlist_t *newroot;
      nvlist_t *poolconfig = NULL;
      is_force = force;

      /*
       * Construct the vdev specification.  If this is successful, we know
       * that we have a valid specification, and that all devices can be
       * opened.
       */
      if ((newroot = construct_spec(argc, argv)) == NULL)
            return (NULL);

      if (zhp && ((poolconfig = zpool_get_config(zhp, NULL)) == NULL))
            return (NULL);

      /*
       * Validate each device to make sure that its not shared with another
       * subsystem.  We do this even if 'force' is set, because there are some
       * uses (such as a dedicated dump device) that even '-f' cannot
       * override.
       */
      if (check_in_use(poolconfig, newroot, force, isreplacing,
          B_FALSE) != 0) {
            nvlist_free(newroot);
            return (NULL);
      }

      /*
       * Check the replication level of the given vdevs and report any errors
       * found.  We include the existing pool spec, if any, as we need to
       * catch changes against the existing replication level.
       */
      if (check_rep && check_replication(poolconfig, newroot) != 0) {
            nvlist_free(newroot);
            return (NULL);
      }

      return (newroot);
}

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